Types of Household Mold

There are many thousands of mold species in existence around the world – with many of them being not only toxic to your health but also destructive to your home. In this article we will focus on the 11 most common types of household mold

Table of Contents
  • Acremonium Mold
  • Acremonium Exposure Health Effects
  • Alternaria Mold
  • Alternaria Exposure Health Effects
  • Aspergillus Mold
  • Aspergillus Exposure Health Effects
  • Bipolaris Mold
  • Bipolaris Exposure Health Effects
  • Cladosporium Mold
  • Cladosporium Exposure Health Effects
  • Memnoniella Mold
  • Memnoniella Exposure Health Effects
  • Mucor Mold
  • Mucor Exposure Health Effects
  • Penicillium Mold
  • Penicillium Exposure Health Effects
  • Stachybotrys Mold
  • Stachybotrys Exposure Health Effects
  • Trichoderma Mold
  • Trichoderma Exposure Health Effects
  • Ulocladium Mold
  • Ulocladium Exposure Health Effects

Acremonium Mold

Acremonium mold forming on a wall
A microscopic view of Acremonium mold

The slow growing and foul smelling Acremonium mold consists of around 100 species. It’s natural habitat is outdoors on soil and dead plants but can easily grow indoors if the humidity levels are high enough. Some species of Acremonium merely act as an allergen while others produce a highly toxic mycotoxin known as Trichothecene. Interestingly, it’s also used in biological warfare weapons.

Acremonium mold comes in various colors and can be either a bright orange, white, gray or even pink. One can also tell how long its been there by looking at its texture; if it appears slimy or wet then its relatively new, however if it has a powdery texture it means its been there for a while. Common indoor places where it grows includes basements, wallpaper, carpets, mattresses, inside air conditioning systems and drywall.

Acremonium mold health effects:

The majority of acremonium species are mostly harmless to humans but there are three species who are responsible for human infections. Symptoms from these infections may include hay fever, skin rashes, asthma, immune system damage, brain damage, internal organ damage, bone marrow damage, pneumonia and urinary tract infection.

Acremonium mold species:

  • Acremonium acutatum
  • Acremonium alabamense
  • Acremonium alternatum
  • Acremonium apii
  • Acremonium arxii
  • Acremonium atrogriseum
  • Acremonium biseptum
  • Acremonium blochii
  • Acremonium borodinense
  • Acremonium brachypenium
  • Acremonium breve
  • Acremonium camptosporum
  • Acremonium cavaraeanum
  • Acremonium charticola
  • Acremonium curvulum
  • Acremonium cymosum
  • Acremonium dichromosporum
  • Acremonium diospyri
  • Acremonium egyptiacum
  • Acremonium exiguum
  • Acremonium flavum
  • Acremonium furcatum
  • Acremonium fusidioides
  • Acremonium glaucum
  • Acremonium guillematii
  • Acremonium hansfordii
  • Acremonium hyalinulum
  • Acremonium hypholomatis
  • Acremonium implicatum
  • Acremonium incrustatum
  • Acremonium kiliense
  • Acremonium lindtneri
  • Acremonium lolii
  • Acremonium minutisporum
  • Acremonium nectrioidea
  • Acremonium nepalense
  • Acremonium ochraceum
  • Acremonium olidum
  • Acremonium pinkertoniae
  • Acremonium polychromum
  • Acremonium potronii
  • Acremonium psammosporum
  • Acremonium pseudozeylanicum
  • Acremonium psychrophilum
  • Acremonium radiatum
  • Acremonium rhabdosporum
  • Acremonium roseogriseum
  • Acremonium roseolum
  • Acremonium rutilum
  • Acremonium salmoneum
  • Acremonium sclerotigenum
  • Acremonium spicatum
  • Acremonium spinosum
  • Acremonium strictum
  • Acremonium thermophilum
  • Acremonium typhinum
  • Acremonium uncinatum
  • Acremonium vitellinum
  • Acremonium zeae
  • Acremonium zeylanicum

Alternaria Mold

Alternaria mold forming on a wall.
A microscopic view of Alternaria mold spores.

Alternaria is a mold that is found both indoors and outdoors. There are believed to be over 50 species and it’s spores are spread easily by wind which is how it effortlessly finds its way into so many homes, especially in the US. It mostly affects crops and small animals while human infections are rare. The mold grows without much water on surfaces like wallpaper and drywall. The type of toxin it produces depends on the species; some examples include alternariol, alternariol monomethylether, tenuazonic acid, and altertoxins. It can appear in green, black or gray colors.

Alternaria Health Effects

Asthma, hay fever, skin disease, chronic rhinosinusitis and woodworkers lung.

Alternaria mold species:

  • Alternaria alternata
  • Alternaria alternantherae
  • Alternaria arborescens
  • Alternaria arbusti
  • Alternaria blumeae
  • Alternaria brassicae
  • Alternaria brassicicola
  • Alternaria burnsii
  • Alternaria carotiincultae
  • Alternaria carthami
  • Alternaria celosiae
  • Alternaria cinerariae
  • Alternaria citri
  • Alternaria conjuncta
  • Alternaria cucumerina
  • Alternaria dauci
  • Alternaria dianthi
  • Alternaria dianthicola
  • Alternaria eichhorniae
  • Alternaria euphorbiicola
  • Alternaria gaisen
  • Alternaria helianthi
  • Alternaria helianthicola
  • Alternaria hungarica
  • Alternaria infectoria
  • Alternaria japonica
  • Alternaria limicola
  • Alternaria linicola
  • Alternaria longipes
  • Alternaria molesta
  • Alternaria panax
  • Alternaria perpunctulata
  • Alternaria petroselini
  • Alternaria porri
  • Alternaria radicina
  • Alternaria raphani
  • Alternaria saponariae
  • Alternaria selini
  • Alternaria senecionis
  • Alternaria solani
  • Alternaria smyrnii
  • Alternaria tenuissima
  • Alternaria triticina
  • Alternaria zinniae

Aspergillus Mold

Aspergillus mold forming behind drywall.
A micrscopicview of Aspergillus mold

Aspergillus is another common mold type which consists of several hundred different species; with 16 of them being highly toxic to humans. It thrives in cold wintery conditions but can withstand heat too. In general, most species don’t really pose a threat to healthy individuals. It can create serious problems though if you have an impaired immune system, are an infant or are elderly.

The most toxic species are found both indoors and outdoors, and produce a mycotoxin called aflatoxins. When these spores are breathed in it can cause serious health effects. Outdoor birds and insects sometimes fall victim to these toxins. Aspergillus can be found on damp walls, leather, various plastics, soil, wallpaper, carpets, inside ventilation systems and even dust among many others.

Aspergillus Health Effects

There exists many hundreds of species but there are only 16 you should be really worried about. Symptoms from toxic aspergillus species may include hay fever, asthma, bleeding of the lungs, infection / destruction of facial bones, cystic fibrosis, cancer and aspergillosis.

Aspergillus Mold Species

  • Aspergillus acidus
  • Aspergillus aculeatinus
  • Aspergillus aculeatus
  • Aspergillus alabamensis
  • Aspergillus alliaceus
  • Aspergillus assulatus
  • Aspergillus astellatus
  • Aspergillus australensis
  • Aspergillus austroafricanus
  • Aspergillus baarnensis
  • Aspergillus baeticus
  • Aspergillus caespitosus
  • Aspergillus calidoustus
  • Aspergillus clavatus
  • Aspergillus crystallinus
  • Aspergillus cvjetkovicii
  • Aspergillus desertorum
  • Aspergillus egyptiacus
  • Aspergillus flavus
  • Aspergillus fumigatus
  • Aspergillus germanicus
  • Aspergillus glaucus
  • Aspergillus hiratsukae
  • Aspergillus haitiensis
  • Aspergillus ibericus
  • Aspergillus inflatus
  • Aspergillus ingratus
  • Aspergillus jeanselmei
  • Aspergillus jensenii
  • Aspergillus keveii
  • Aspergillus koningii
  • Aspergillus lentulus
  • Aspergillus lepidophyton
  • Aspergillus leporis
  • Aspergillus maritimus
  • Aspergillus marvanovae
  • Aspergillus microcysticus
  • Aspergillus monodii
  • Aspergillus mottae
  • Aspergillus mucoroides
  • Aspergillus nidulans
  • Aspergillus niger
  • Aspergillus occultus
  • Aspergillus ochraceus
  • Aspergillus oryzae
  • Aspergillus panamensis
  • Aspergillus penicillioides
  • Aspergillus pseudonomius
  • Aspergillus qinqixianii
  • Aspergillus restrictus
  • Aspergillus saccharolyticus
  • Aspergillus sojae
  • Aspergillus subversicolor
  • Aspergillus terreus
  • Aspergillus unguis
  • Aspergillus ustus
  • Aspergillus versicolor
  • Aspergillus xerophilus
  • Aspergillus yezoensis
  • Aspergillus zonatus

Bipolaris Mold

A bad base of Bipolaris mold forming on a wall.
A microscopic view of Bipolaris mold.

Bipolaris mold is very common and is mostly found outdoors on soil, grass and plants. There are 20 species and they produce a mycotoxin known as sterigmatocystin which has adverse health effects on humans and animals.

Bipolaris Health Effects

Hay fever, asthma, permanent sinus damage, liver damage, kidney damage and DNA damage.

Bipolaris Mold Species

  • Bipolaris australis
  • Bipolaris brizae
  • Bipolaris cactivora
  • Bipolaris clavata
  • Bipolaris coicis
  • Bipolaris colocasiae
  • Bipolaris crotonis
  • Bipolaris crustacea
  • Bipolaris euchlaenae
  • Bipolaris halepensis
  • Bipolaris heveae
  • Bipolaris incurvata
  • Bipolaris leersiae
  • Bipolaris micropus
  • Bipolaris miyakei
  • Bipolaris multiformis
  • Bipolaris papendorfii
  • Bipolaris sacchari
  • Bipolaris salkadehensis
  • Bipolaris sorghicola
  • Bipolaris subpapendorfii
  • Bipolaris tropicalis
  • Bipolaris urochloae
  • Bipolaris zeae

Cladosporium Mold

Cladosporium mold forming on a wall and ceiling.
A microscopic view of Cladosporium mold spores.

Cladosporium mold grows in winter and summer conditions and can be found indoors as well as outdoors. It’s one the least toxic molds and causes no serious health issues. There are around 30 cladosporium species which comes in either a brown, green or black (not toxic black mold) color.

It’s often found growing on wood, plants, soil, window sills, sheetrock and bathrooms. The two types of toxins Cladosporium produces are cladosporin and emodin (neither are highly toxic).

Cladosporium Health Effects

Sinus, sneezing, tight chest, difficulty breathing, eye irritation and aspergillosis.

Cladosporium Mold Species

  • Cladosporium acaciicola
  • Cladosporium acalyphae
  • Cladosporium adianticola
  • Cladosporium aecidiicola
  • Cladosporium arthropodii
  • Cladosporium asperistipitatum
  • Cladosporium bauhiniana
  • Cladosporium borassi
  • Cladosporium brevipes
  • Cladosporium dominicanum
  • Cladosporium dracaenatum
  • Cladosporium edgeworthiae
  • Cladosporium funiculosum
  • Cladosporium fusiforme
  • Cladosporium galii
  • Cladosporium gallicola
  • Cladosporium halotolerans
  • Cladosporium herbarum
  • Cladosporium musae
  • Cladosporium neriicola
  • Cladosporium nigrelloides
  • Cladosporium oncobae
  • Cladosporium oxysporum
  • Cladosporium pallidum
  • Cladosporium psoraleae
  • Cladosporium psychrotolerans
  • Cladosporium salinae
  • Cladosporium sarmentorum
  • Cladosporium spinaciarum
  • Cladosporium spinulosum
  • Cladosporium syringae
  • Cladosporium uleanum
  • Cladosporium varians
  • Cladosporium velox
  • Cladosporium yuccae
  • Cladosporium zeae

Memnoniella Mold

Memnoniella mold forming on a wall.
A microsopic view of Memnoniella mold spores.

Memnoniella mold, along with Stachybotrys mold are the two dreaded toxic black molds on the list. This fungi, just like Stachybotrys is highly toxic and not a species you want growing in your home. The memnoniella species is almost identical to Stachybotrys and the only real difference between the two is that former has smaller spores. The problem with smaller mold spores is that its easier to breathe in and penetrate the linings of the lungs. It’s most often found in places where there has been water damage. Surfaces memnoniella can be found growing on includes drywall and wallpaper. Short term memnoniella exposure is not too serious but the longer you breathe in the spores the more serious your symptoms will become.

Memnoniella Health Effects

Throat irritation,asthma, headaches, skin rashes, itchy throat, erosion of the autoimmune system, itchy and burning eyes.

Mucor Mold

Mucor mold appearing on a section of drywall.
A microscopic view of Mucor mold spores.

Mucor mold is a fast growing mold that can be identified by a white and sometimes grey color. It can be found outdoors and indoors. Outdoors it grows on plants, hay and soil while indoors in HVAC systems, wood surfaces and dirty carpets. Mucor also grows on rotting fruit and stale bread. The majority of the 50 Mucor mold species only grows in low temperatures therefore stale food items kept in refrigerators are susceptible.

Mucor Health Effects

Most mucor mold species are unable to infect humans and other mammals thanks to its inability to grow in warm conditions. The Mucor indicus species is the exception and can withstand warmer temperatures thus is most likely to affect humans. The mold itself is not toxic but in severe cases of long term exposure symptoms can include septic arthiritis, eye infections, skin infections, brain infections and nasal passage infections. Consuming stale bread with mucor growth can and usually does create problems with the digestive system.

Mucor Mold Species

  • Mucor amphibiorum
  • Mucor circinelloides
  • Mucor ellipsoideus
  • Mucor hiemalis
  • Mucor hiemalis
  • Mucor indicus
  • Mucor mucedo
  • Mucor paronychius
  • Mucor piriformis
  • Mucor plumbeus
  • Mucor racemosus
  • Mucor velutinosus

Penicillium Mold

Penicillium mold growing in an attic.
A microscopic view of Penicillium mold spores.

Certain species of penicillium mold can be disastrous to your health, yet at the same time it has saved millions of lives thanks to its use as the penicillin antibiotic. There are about 200 species in existence, some of which produces the highly toxic mycotoxins. It’s a mold that can be found worldwide but has been known to be especially problematic in the South East Asia region. It can be recognized by its blue, yellow or green colors. Penicillium mold can be commonly found growing on fruits, vegetables, soil, leather surfaces, wood surfaces and wallpaper.

Penicillium Health Effects

Penicillium, once airborne can be a potential threat to humans but serious infections are very rare. Most species would flare up your allergies and the longer you are exposed to it the worse your symptoms will become. Certain species who produce mycotoxins pose a much bigger threat. Some of these include verrucosum, patulin, citrinin, citreoviridin, penitrem and verrucosidin.

The effects of these toxic penicillium mold species have never been confirmed in humans but in animals they cause symptoms such as cancer, kidney damage, haemorrhage and in some cases even paralysis.

Penicillium Mold Species

  • Penicillium alfredii
  • Penicillium allii
  • Penicillium angulare
  • Penicillium brocae
  • Penicillium burgense
  • Penicillium canis
  • Penicillium citrinum
  • Penicillium daleae
  • Penicillium digitatum
  • Penicillium elleniae
  • Penicillium expansum
  • Penicillium fractum
  • Penicillium giganteum
  • Penicillium glabrum
  • Penicillium gossypii
  • Penicillium hirsutum
  • Penicillium inflatum
  • Penicillium jejuense
  • Penicillium kenraperi
  • Penicillium kongii
  • Penicillium laeve
  • Penicillium lassenii
  • Penicillium levitum
  • Penicillium madriti
  • Penicillium melinii
  • Penicillium nilense
  • Penicillium oblatum
  • Penicillium ootensis
  • Penicillium palmae
  • Penicillium qii
  • Penicillium radicum
  • Penicillium solitum
  • Penicillium tardum
  • Penicillium vagum
  • Penicillium viticola
  • Penicillium zonatum

Stachybotrys Mold

A severe case of stachybotrys mold growing on a wall.
A microscopic view of stachybotrys mold spores.

Stachybotrys mold, epecially the Stachybotrys chartarum species is the single most toxic black mold you can have in your home. In total there are 50 Stachybotrys species in existence and although it’s not as common as other types its not all that rare either. Stachybotrys has a greenish-black appearance and commonly grows on dust, wood, wallpaper and many other surfaces. It thrives in hot humid conditions, especially after flooding has taken place.

Stachybotrys Health Effects

Health symptoms caused by Stachybotrys include skin infections, burning of the eyes and throat, watering eyes and coughing. In more severe cases it causes the supression of the immune system, damage to internal organs, memory loss, various neurological disorders, concentration problems and even vommiting.

If this mold has been detected in your home it’s best to evacuate all people and animals from the building and let a proffessional deal with the mold removal process.

Stachybotrys Mold Species

  • Stachybotrys albipes
  • Stachybotrys alternans
  • Stachybotrys breviuscula
  • Stachybotrys chartarum
  • Stachybotrys chlorohalonata
  • Stachybotrys cylindrospora
  • Stachybotrys dichroa
  • Stachybotrys elegans
  • Stachybotrys eucylindrospora
  • Stachybotrys freycinetiae
  • Stachybotrys kampalensis
  • Stachybotrys kapiti
  • Stachybotrys longispora
  • Stachybotrys mangiferae
  • Stachybotrys microspora
  • Stachybotrys nephrodes
  • Stachybotrys nephrospora
  • Stachybotrys nilagirica
  • Stachybotrys oenanthes
  • Stachybotrys parvispora
  • Stachybotrys ruwenzoriensis
  • Stachybotrys sansevieriae
  • Stachybotrys sinuatophora
  • Stachybotrys suthepensis
  • Stachybotrys theobromae
  • Stachybotrys waitakere

Trichoderma Mold

A bad case of Trichoderma mold forming against a wall.
A microscopic view of trichoderma mold spores.

Trichoderma mold grows fast and thrives in warm temperatures. Most species are commonly found outdoors on vegetation and soil but the toxic Trichoderma longibrachiatum species are usually found inside homes. When inside homes it usually grows on carpets, wood surfaces, stored foods, wallpaper and air conditioning units.

Trichoderma Health Effects

Every Trichodermamold species has adverse effects on people. The health effects include coughing, pneumonia, sneezing, asthma and sore throats.

Trichoderma Mold Species

  • Trichoderma asperellum
  • Trichoderma atroviride
  • Trichoderma candidum
  • Trichoderma catoptron
  • Trichoderma cremeum
  • Trichoderma cerinum
  • Trichoderma crassum
  • Trichoderma cremeum
  • Trichoderma dorotheae
  • Trichoderma effusum
  • Trichoderma fertile
  • Trichoderma hamatum
  • Trichoderma helicum
  • Trichoderma intricatum
  • Trichoderma koningii
  • Trichoderma longibrachiatum
  • Trichoderma longipile
  • Trichoderma ovalisporum
  • Trichoderma petersenii
  • Trichoderma piluliferum
  • Trichoderma pleurotum
  • Trichoderma polysporum
  • Trichoderma pubescens
  • Trichoderma reesei
  • Trichoderma rossicum
  • Trichoderma sinensis
  • Trichoderma songyi
  • Trichoderma spirale
  • Trichoderma strigosum
  • Trichoderma taiwanense
  • Trichoderma thailandicum
  • Trichoderma theobromicola
  • Trichoderma virens
  • Trichoderma virgatum
  • Trichoderma viride
  • Trichoderma viridescens

Ulocladium Mold

Ulocladium mold forming on a wall.
A microscopic view of Ulocladium mold spores.

There is not a lot known about ulocladium mold and neither is it known wether or not it produces toxins. It’s spores are often mistaken for Alternaria spores when a mold test is done. Ulocladium needs a lot of water before it forms and grows on straw materials, tapestries, wallpaper, gypsum board and painted surfaces. It’s also known to be more destructive to your home than other molds.

Ulocladium Health Effects

Some ulocladium species merely trigger allergies while others has much more serious effects. Typical symptoms include fever, itchy and burning eyes, eye infections and skin infections.

Ulocladium Mold Species

  • Ulocladium alternariae
  • Ulocladium atrum
  • Ulocladium botrytis
  • Ulocladium chartarum
  • Ulocladium chlamydosporum
  • Ulocladium consortiale
  • Ulocladium cucurbitae
  • Ulocladium dauci
  • Ulocladium lanuginosum
  • Ulocladium litoreum
  • Ulocladium manihoticola
  • Ulocladium manihoticolum
  • Ulocladium microspora
  • Ulocladium multiforme
  • Ulocladium oblongo-ovoideum
  • Ulocladium ovoideum
  • Ulocladium oudemansii
  • Ulocladium populi
  • Ulocladium septosporum
  • Ulocladium tuberculatum